The Sanctuary Movement - separate from the Sanctuary Model - was a religious and political campaign in the United States that began in the early 1980s to provide safe-haven for Central American refugees fleeing civil conflict. It responded to federal immigration policies that made obtaining asylum difficult for Central Americans.
At its peak, Sanctuary involved over 500 congregations in the United States that, by declaring themselves official “sanctuaries,” committed to providing shelter, material goods and often legal advice to Central American refugees. Various denominations were involved, including the Lutherans, United Church of Christ, Roman Catholics, Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists, Jews, Unitarian Universalists, Quakers, and Mennonites.
Movement members acted in defiance of federal law, and many prominent Sanctuary figures were arrested and put on trial in the mid and late 1980s. The roots of the movement derive from the right of sanctuary in medieval law and Jewish and Christian social teachings.
Today the Sanctuary Movement is being revived in the face of increasingly repressive U.S. government policies around immigration. This page provides past and current references.
Alvarez, P. (2017). Trump Cracks Down on Sanctuary Cities. The Atlantic, January 25.
Arrieta-Kenna, R. (2016). Sanctuary cities stand firm against Trump. Politico, December 12.
Bauder, H. (2016). "Sanctuary Cities: Policies and Practices in International Perspective." International migration.
Cameron, D. (2017). How sanctuary cities work, and how Trump’s executive order might affect them. Washington Post, January 25.
Caminero-santangelo, M. (2009). "Responding to the Human Costs of US Immigration Policy: No More Deaths and the New Sanctuary Movement." Latino Studies 7(1): 112-122.
Chinchilla, N. S., et al. (2009). "The Sanctuary Movement and Central American Activism in Los Angeles." Latin American Perspectives 36(6): 101-126.
DiGrazia, J. (2014). "Individual Protest Participation in the United States: Conventional and Unconventional Activism." Social Science Quarterly 95(1): 111-131.
Freeland, G. (2010). "Negotiating place, space and borders: The New Sanctuary Movement." Latino Studies 8(4): 485-508.
Grabar, H. (2017). The Siege of Sanctuary Cities Has Begun. Slate, January 25.
H.B.C. (2016). What are sanctuary cities? The Economist, November 22.
Kusch, F. (2015). "Building Sanctuary: The Movement to Support Vietnam War Resisters in Canada, 1965-73." Canadian Journal of History 50: 181+.
Lippert, R. (2004). "Sanctuary practices, rationalities, and sovereignties." Alternatives: Global, Local, Political 29: 535+.
Lippert, R. (2005). "Rethinking Sanctuary: The Canadian Context, 1983–20031." International Migration Review 39(2): 381-406.
Lippert, R. K. and S. Rehaag (2013). Sanctuary Practices in International Perspectives: Migration, Citizenship and Social Movements London, Routledge. INTRODUCTION
Lundberg, A. and S. Michael (2016). "Who provides the conditions for human life? : Sanctuary movements in Sweden as both contesting and working with state agencies." Politics (Manchester, England).
MacEoin, G. (editor) (1985) Sanctuary: A Resource Guide for Understanding and Participating in the Central American Refugees' Struggle. New York: Harper and Row.
Marfleet, P. and P. Marfleet "Understanding 'Sanctuary': Faith and Traditions of Asylum." Journal of refugee studies 24(3): 440-455.
Perla, H. and S. B. Coutin (2009). Legacies and origins of the 1980s US--Central American sanctuary movement. Refuge. 26: 7+.
Shearer, T. M. (2010). Young Center Books in Anabaptist and Pietist Studies : Daily Demonstrators : The Civil Rights Movement in Mennonite Homes and Sanctuaries. Baltimore, US, Johns Hopkins University Press.
Shoemaker, K. (2013). Sanctuary for crime in the early common law. Sanctuary Practices in International Perspectives: Migration, Citizenship and Social Movements. R. K. Lippert and S. Rehaag. London, Routledge: 15-26.
Smith, C. (2010). Resisting Reagan : The U.S. Central America Peace Movement. Chicago, US, University of Chicago Press.
Squires, J. (2013). Building Sanctuary : The Movement to Support Vietnam War Resisters in Canada, 1965-73. Vancouver, CA, UBC Press.
Terry, D. and N.A. Jimenez (2007). The new Sanctuary Movement. Hispanic. Miami, Hispanic Publishing Corporation 20: 42-45
Wild, K. L. "The New Sanctuary Movement: when moral mission means breaking the law, and the consequences for churches and illegal immigrants." Santa Clara law review 50(3): 981.
Wiltfang, G. L. and D. McAdam (1991). "The Costs and Risks of Social Activism: A Study of Sanctuary Movement Activism." Social Forces 69(4): 987-1010.